On the stand in San Francisco right this moment, former Uber CEO Travis Kalanick appeared calm, cool, and well-hydrated, sipping from a sequence of tiny water bottles whereas serenely fielding questions from the authorized group at Waymo, the Alphabet self-driving automotive effort that’s suing Uber for commerce secret theft. It was his first public talking look since his resignation from the ridehailing firm this summer time, so his mere presence felt like massive information.

However because the second day of the Waymo-Uber trial drew to a detailed, a quieter second, one which handled the difficult nature of commerce secrets and techniques, would possibly turn into extra consequential. If the legal professionals do their job proper, the jury will resolve this case based mostly not on salacious emails or assembly notes (although Waymo has introduced loads of inner Uber communications which might be, effectively, juvenile at greatest). It should resolve based mostly on whether or not the laser expertise Uber utilized in its self-driving automobiles qualify as Waymo commerce secrets and techniques.

The second: An extended-time engineer for Waymo’s self-driving tasks named Dimitri Dolgov testified that his firm has lengthy had a patent bonus program. If somebody efficiently information for a patent with the USA Patent and Trademark Workplace, they get a financial prize. For a corporation within the enterprise of breaking new technological floor, this is smart: Invent a factor, win an award!

Throughout his cross examination, Uber’s counsel Arturo Gonzalez requested Dolgov whether or not Waymo had an analogous program for commerce secrets and techniques. In any case, Waymo is suing Uber for misappropriating eight of its commerce secrets and techniques, after an engineer named Anthony Levandowski left Waymo to type his personal autonomous truck firm in January 2016. Uber acquired Levandowski’s startup simply eight months later, which is how Waymo says their mental property ended up in Uber self-driving automotive lasers.

“There are eight commerce secrets and techniques on this case, simply eight,” Gonzalez mentioned. “Inform the jury, who’re the individuals who bought bonuses for these eight issues which might be supposedly nice concepts?”

There isn’t a program like that, Dolgov responded, as a result of a bunch of individuals helped develop the commerce secrets and techniques. Commerce secret rewards, Dolgov mentioned, “will not be as clearly mapped.” He testified that he had solely seen all eight commerce secrets and techniques outlined after Waymo filed its lawsuit final 12 months.

That sounds bizarre, however it traces up with how commerce secrets and techniques work in the actual world. “Typically, corporations received’t know what commerce secrets and techniques are till they’re stolen,” says John Marsh, a lawyer with the regulation agency Bailey Cavalieri. You possibly can by accident infringe on a patent; you may also look them up, to be sure you’re not infringing on them. However two separate corporations can develop the identical idea, independently, and have it qualify as a commerce secret—for every of them.

That is complicated. As one appellate choose wrote in 1978, “The time period ‘commerce secret’ is likely one of the most elusive and troublesome ideas within the regulation to outline.” Fortuitously for each groups of legal professionals on this self-driving smackdown, Choose William Alsup, who’s overseeing the case, has already neatly outlined how he’ll ask to jury to consider commerce secrets and techniques. (In a normal transfer, he is launched a preliminary jury directions, to information the legal professionals when forming their instances.)

Alsup says a commerce secret is something—a system, a design, a process, a code—that’s securely contained and retained inside an organization. Perhaps it is simpler to outline it by what it’s not: “ abilities, skills, or talents developed by workers of their employment.”

For Waymo to win its case, Alsup explains, it should first show the actual components of lidar expertise in query are secrets and techniques the corporate has gone out of its option to defend. Waymo has to point out that Uber “improperly acquired”—stole—the commerce secrets and techniques, after which used or disclosed them. And it has to show that Uber enriched itself off the commerce secrets and techniques. A tough factor, when self-driving automobiles have but to become profitable in any respect.

Which is to say, it is no small feat for Waymo to ascertain that it had commerce secrets and techniques within the first place. Regardless of a number of creepy wanting proof about Uber-related shenanigans—like forensic proof proven in court docket right this moment, linking Levandowski to downloads of Waymo information only a month earlier than he left the corporate—jurors will probably be requested to maintain their eyes on the prize: onerous proof that Uber stole commerce secrets and techniques.

On the stand right this moment, Uber legal professionals tried to make use of Waymo’s personal witnesses to show the self-driving automotive firm was careless with its info—which might point out that the knowledge was not, in truth, a commerce secret. They requested a Google forensic analyst why Levandowski’s alleged obtain of these information didn’t set off “alarm bells.” The analyst mentioned that monitoring the server in query wasn’t a selected particular person’s job. Uber additionally continued to weave the narrative it began to spin day one of many trial: that Waymo was out to get Levandowski and Uber out of concern of competitors.

Waymo’s technique, to point out it was up towards some unhealthy guys at Uber, does in the end assist make its commerce secrets and techniques case. “One of many key underpinnings of commerce secret regulation is enterprise ethics,” says Marsh, the lawyer. “There’s largely some requirement of misconduct or misbehavior by a celebration.”

To that finish, legal professionals from Waymo right this moment used inner Uber communications to recommend Uber was panicked about its lack of progress in self-driving automotive sensors—and OK with dishonest to get there. “Rush to laser – group actually strained on making an attempt to determine greatest sensor set whereas additionally maintaining progress on so many fronts,” former Uber self-driving head John Bares wrote in notes relationship to September 2015, whereas Levandowski was nonetheless at Waymo. “Laser is the sauce,” Travis Kalanick wrote on a whiteboard throughout a January 2016 assembly, just a few weeks earlier than Levandowski’s departure.

And through a skirmish earlier than the choose with Uber legal professionals, the Waymo authorized group previewed plans to point out the well-known “greed is nice” speech from Wall Avenue to the jury—as a result of Levandowski despatched Kalanick a YouTube clip of the scene in a textual content message. (Alsup will resolve on whether or not to permit the clip later, although he did notice the scene was “one the most effective moments in all of Hollywood.”)

Nonetheless, a relaxed Kalanick resisted Waymo’s insinuations he had implicitly inspired Levandowski to cheat. The previous Waymo engineer and his group did must hit formidable and particularly lidar-related milestones to get a full $590 million verify for the acquisition of their self-driving truck startup. However he mentioned they might additionally get the cash if the general initiative was profitable—in the event that they ultimately cracked self-driving automobiles.

Kalanick will once more take the stand tomorrow morning at 7:30 San Francisco time, and you may anticipate Waymo legal professionals to try to point out, as soon as extra, that the previous CEO created an environment that egged on extralegal shortcuts and successful in any respect prices. However whereas it is tempting to boil this case right down to Gordon Gekko, keep in mind that this trial is admittedly about commerce secrets and techniques. Yeah, the boring stuff.

Trial of the Self-Driving Century